l  JULY, 1918. Prive 8s. net. 
î- — — — — îîg‘ ‘








LONDON. w.c. 2. À



318 Major W. M. Congreve : Ornit/zological and [Ibis,

XXI.——0I‘nit/zo/o_yica1 and (Jologicczl Alotes frmn the River

Sonmzc valicy al ils [Haut/z and near Peronne. By Major
‘V. UAITLAND CONGREVE, .\l.C., l{.A., l\Ï.ll.O.U.

THE River Somme for many miles from its month is
eanalized, but owing to the fact tliat it runs throngh a
wide flat-bottomed valley it is unable t0 (lrain the sur-
rounding meadows, whieh arc nornnally very marshy and
intersected by reed and rnsl1-gro\vn irrigation ditehes.

In many places in the valley tliere are large sheets of
deep water, surrounded by swamps and osier plantations.
The sides of the valley‘ are fairly-well \\'()0(lC(l, and the
numerous villages are surrounded by fine old orehards of
apple and pear. The liiglier gronnd above the valley is
undulating and open, and higlily cultivated with corn,
silgar-beet, lucerne, ete. There are few liedges except in
the neighbourhood 0E villages, but tliere is a fair amount
of eover for birds in the numerous small, and in places
very large, woods wllieh owing to the war have not been
kept free of undergrowth in the nsual methotlical French
way. l

The above is a. rough (leseription 0E the (listriet in whieh
the writer worked from March t0 earlyi Jnne of 1917.
Dnring Jnne and part 0E Jnly lie soldiered in the neigh-
bourhood of Pcronnc. 'l‘he1'e the River Somme is a fairly
fast clear stream, normally several hundreds of yards wide
and much ehoked, except in the main ehannel, by dense
reed-beds interspersed by sluggish channels ove1‘g1‘o\vn by
water-loving weeds. The surronnding country is open and
undulating. There are numerous small woods, but villages,
orehurds, and cultivation are non-existent owing t0 the
depredations 0E the Hun in the great retreat following
the Battle of the Somme.

The writcr of these lines had only odd heurs in whieh to
take notes of birds and nests, and did not waste any time
on species whieh did not interest him oologically, except
that ho made an oecasional entry in his note-book about the

1918.] Ooloyical JVotes jrom t/ze Itivei‘ Somme valley. 349

arrival or (lapai-turc 0E migrants. Conseqnently, these notes
will be very incompletc, and will rely for thcir intercst
on tlie Tact tliat thcy wcrc taken in a theatre of war nndcr
nnnsnal conditions. Only binoniial names are nsed as tlie
birds were only identified by sight, and not collected.

Except where Peronnc is slaecifically mentioned, tliese
notes will reEer to thc rivcr-month (listrict only.

Corvus corone. Carrion Crow.

Connnon, and ncsting in all tl1e woods and spinneys.
First nest witli eggs found on 20 April. The eggs were
slightly incubated. On tliat date numerous nests were
being built, and the weathei‘ was anytliing bnt spring-Iikc.

Corvus cornix. Hooded Crow.

Nnmerons ncal‘ tlic month of tlic river as late as 19 April.
Two pairs werc fonnd ncsting near Etaplcs by Uajor L. B.
Windle, R.A., and thc following are notes extracted from a
lctter froin l1i1n:—“ Nests were fonnd about April 24s, and
the second about May 8. Tlic first liad two eggs wliich I
left to get tlie wl1ole lot, and on retnrning two days latcr
found all had becn takcn by sonlebody elsc. The second
liad three eggs and the bird Was sitting. Both nests were in
fir-trees, in tlie snmll bits of green stnfi‘ closc to tlie top,
and in small grovcs of trees which are dotted about in tlie
sand-hills. I could not find more tlian these two pairs,
thougli I searclied all over the arca round here witliin
about two miles, nor did I see any of tlic common black
crows nesting anywhere about.”

Corvus monedula. J ackdaw.

Common in church towers, as at Abbcville. Not met
with in tlie country cxcept when fèeding‘, as tliere were few,
if any, snitahle nesting-sites.

Corvus frugilegus. Rock.
Not so common as they arc in England. Only two
“rookeries” met witli, \‘iz., near Abbevillc and a small

onc near Peronnc.

350 Major W. M. Congreve: Ornithological and [Ibis,

Pica pica. Magpie.
Extremely common, and tlieir ncsts are quite a feature of
the landscapc.

Garrulus glandarius. Continental J ay.

Cominon, nesting in all thc woods and spinneys. A nest
of six considerably incubated eggs in the top of an ivy-
grown pollarded willoæv on 20 May, and anotlier with five
considerably iucubated eggs on 10 Junc in an oak-tree.

Sturnus vulgaris. Starling.
Not very common. Nesting in typical situations, espe-
cially old Woodpeckers’ holcs.

Oriolus oriolus. Golden Oriole.

A pair of males first seen at Saigneville on 10 1\Iay.

A fairly common species and easy to locate owing t0 its
cnrious distance-carryiiig note. Every wood of any size at
all had at least one pair nesting in it, and they were found
occasionally in quitc open spinneys.

In the Peronne district they were even more common
tlian farther north, and they were casier t0 locate owing to
the woods being smaller.

011e nest, fonnd near Peronnc in Jnne, ivas suspended at
the end of a thin beecli bough some twenty fcet from the
ground, in a small wood seamed Wltll old Gcrman tranches
and dug-outs. It was a puzzle t0 (liscover where the fine
sheep’s-n'ool came from out of which the nest was c011-
strncted, for there are no civilians or, conseqnently, sheep
for many square miles of that district. The inystery was
solved by (liscovering several old sheeiÿs-wool mattresses
lying about 300 yards froin 111e nest, at thc entrance ofzL
“dug-out.” These mattresses had doubtlessly been looted
fro1n 80111€ Frenchmank home during the Hun occupation.

Another nest in the saine district was in a Silver Birch,
and was mande entirely of paper and one 01' two big cliickeifs
feathers. Unfortunately tlnerc were two large yonng” birds
in thc nest, s0 it could not be cut down. The paper would
have becn of interest, as it was probably “ made in Germany.”

1918.] Oological Notesfrom the River Sonzme valley. 351

The district was left shortly aftcrwards, s0 the uest could
not hc again visited for further examination.

The time for frcsh eggs 0E this species appears to be
during the {irst week of June.

Chloris chloris. Grecnfinch.
Not nnconimon, but no nest was fouud.

Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Ilawfinch.
Only one scen, and that was nezu‘ St. Valéry on l0 May
and presumably breeding in the wood in which it was seen.

Carduelis carduelis. Continental Goldfinch.

Not nncommon in the orchards round the villages of
Saigneville, Boismont, St. Valéry, etc. They are prized
as cage-birds, as at home, for two pairs nesting in some
pear-trves bcsidc a faim-bouse were being most carefully
preserved by thc owners of the land.

Passer domesticus. Spa1‘1‘O\\'.
Con) m0 n .

Passer montanus. 'l‘1‘ee-Sparro\v.

Common, and breeding in the holes of apple and other
trees. In the neighbourhood of Albert they pusitively
swarmed last winter, and were far comnionel‘ thau P. domes-

Fringilla cœlebs. Chaffinch.
A common breeding species.

Acanthis cannabina. Linnet.

Fairly common, and breeding in gorse patches. The
gorse appeared t0 have been completely killed by the hard
frost of last January-February and uever showed the least
sign of flower or even green.

Emberiza calandra. Corn-Buuting.
Common in both districts, but most s0 in thc neighbour-
hood of the sea.

352 Major W. M. Congrevc: Ornithological and [Ibis,

Emberiza citrinella. Yellow Bunting.
Common everysvliere, and breeding in banks and gorse

Emberiza, cirlns. Cirl Bunting.

Common, especially in the neiglibonrliood of villages, and
breeding in grassy banks bordering lanes. Eggs were tirst
fonnd on 6 1\'Iay. In all, four nests were fountl round

Saigneville and St. Valéry. Tlie typieal elutch appea1's«

t0 be thrce.

Emberiza schœniclus. RÀeed-Bunting.
Not uneonnnon, and breeding in suitablc situations in

Alauda arvensis. Sky-Lark.
A eominon breeding species.

Galerida cristata. Crested Lark.

Common, partieularly on thc sea-coast and round the
ontskirts of Abbeville; also everysvhere in tlie Peronne

They apparu‘ to have numerons broods, and nests were
fonnd. as follows 2--

14‘ Ïiîav. Nest witli lame Vonnv- nest of fonr fresli emrs.
a Ô o b? b0

BoLli the above on tlie sidc 0E thc old Abbeville
fortification (litch.

23 Uay. Nest witli one fresh egg in saine situation as

6 Junc. Ncst witli four fresli eggs. Samc place as above.

l6 June. Nest of five 1noderately incubated cggs at Roisel

(Peronne district).

Motacilla. alba. White W agtail.

A pair liere and there. A pair built nnder thc roof of an
open shed in Saigncville village and sliould have liad eggs
by about 14 May, but the nest was (lestroyed by soniebotly
or other. A ncst of six eggs sliglitly incubatcd on l4 "Àlay.
'.l_‘his nest was ncar the top 0E au old wall forming part of

i918] Oolayical Nutesjronz t/ze Ifivez‘ Somme valley. 353

the ancient fortifications of the town of Abbeville. Thc
parent-birds wcrc not very light-coloured, and it is possible
that Pied and White Wagtails overlap and interbreed in
this district, as uudonbted “Pieds” were seen now and

again in May as also were scen unduly (lark-looking
“ Wliite ” “Ïagtails.

Motacilla lugubris. Pied Wagtail.

Common in the early spring. Not proved by the writer
t0 be actually brecding, thongli undoubtetl specimens of this
spccics wcrc seeu now and again in May, but thcre ncvcr
happened t0 be time or opportunity for investigation.

Motacilla raii. Yellow ‘Vagtail.

A few seen among Bluedieaded Yellow ‘Vagtails on
28 April ncar St. Valéry. It is probable that a few pairs
remain t0 breed, as undotibted mules were secn at the eud

of May among‘ the lucerne crops near the mouth of the

Motacilla fiava. Blue-lieaded Yellow Wagtail.

Very common on tlic meanlows and lucerne fields near
the inouth of the river. TlllS Wagtail was first noted 011
27 April, and a colony o!‘ about tun pairs had takcn up
their rcsidencc in a marshy, coarse grass- and rusli-covered
fiat near St. Valéry by 28 April.

The first two nests ivere found on 10 Way, well concealed
under tufts of coarse grass, and they eontained rcspectively
one egg and three sucked eggs. A nest witli six fresli eggs
was found on 15 May, and three more nests witli sucked
eggs. A (lay or two later a friand, who used t0 go about
with the writer. caught a Cuckoo red-lianded bcsitle anotlier
nest of this species witli newly-broken and partly-sucked
eggs. Tlnc Uuckoo was sliot, and silbsetluently anothei‘
Cuckoo was fonntl (lead, evidently slnot, on the saine pateli
of ground. Othcr eggs found sueked were those of the
lîeetl-Bunting and Partridge. It seeins impossible t0 believe
that a soft-billed bird like a Cuckoo can suck Partridge eggs,
but there n'as no doubt about the Wagtails’.


354 Major W. M. Congreve: Omit/zological and [Ibisç

N0 Harrier or other egg-sncking bird 01' beast was ever
seen in tliat neighbourhood. By 22 May the colony was
practically non-existent, but one more nest, containing
young, was fouud at the end of May by the same friend.

Anthua trivialis. Tree- Pipit.

First noted on 29 April. Common and breeding in
typical situations. Several nests were found, the average
date for fresh eggs being 20 May.

Anthus pratensis. Meadoiv-Pipit.
Common, especially near the sea-coast.

Certhia. sp. ? Thc Tree-Creeper.

Tree-Creepers were fairly common among the willows in
the river-valley. The remains of an old nest, containing
very stronglyumarked egg-sliells, was found in a pollarded
willow. It appeared t0 date from a previous year. Unfor-
tunately no new nest was found, thougli a good deal of time
was spent tijring to (l0 s0. *

Sitta cæsia. Nuthatch.

Scarce. Two pairs were met with in the orcliards at
Saigneville and one nesting-hole was located, but 110 eggs
were laid, although the parent-birds were in the immediate
vicinity on many occasions.

Regulus regulus. Goldcrest.

Some birds of this species lived in some fir-trees near
St. Valéry during April, but seemed t0 disappeal‘ later.
The district is a bad one for Uoldcrests, as fir-trees are very
scarce and a yew-tree ivas never met with.

Parus major. Continental Great Tit.

Common, and breeding in suitable situations in the
orchards round Saigneville and other villages in the

* Since this note was written 1 took a nest on 18 April, 1918, near
Ypres containing six eggs. The male bird, shot for the purpose of
identification, proves to be a typical example of C’. b. bracfiydactyla,
which is probnbly the prevailing form in nurthern France.

1918.] Oologiczc! Notes from t/ze River Sunzme val/ey. 355

Parus palustris. BIarsh-Tit.

Not IIIICOIDDIOD. A nest with eight fresh eggs ou 8 May.
It was about six inches down from the crown 0E a. rotten
pollarded willow and some six feet from the ground. The
nest was Very substantial and did not resemble that of a
Willowffit, thongli it would, perhaps, have been more satis-
factory if identification could have been made even more
certain by obtaining a bird.

Parus cæruleus. Continental Blue Tit.
Common and breeding in suitable holes in the orchards.

Ægithalus caudatus. Long-tailcd Tit.

Fairly commou up till thc end of April, wlien they dis-
appearcd. One nest was found snspended in broom in the
Forêt de Crécy on 3 Bïay with one egg. The nest was
unfortunately subseqttently deserted owing t0 rough treat-
ment by one of the writefs men.

Lanius collurio. Red-backed Slirike.
First noted on 3 May. A not uncommon breeding species
in the hedges bordering railtvayJines round Abbeville.

Sylvia. communis. Whitetliroat.
No note W38 made of the arriva] 0l’ this species, but it is
fairly common and a few nests were fonnd.

Sylvia curruca. Lesser Wliitetliroat.
First noted on 29 April. A fairly comnion brecding

Sylvia. simplex. Garden-Warhler.
First noted on 29 April. Common.

Sylvia. atricapilla. Blackcap.
First noted on 14 April. Common.

Acrocephalus scirpaceus. RccdJVarbler.
A vcry common brecding species in botli districts. First
notcd on 11L May.

356 Major W. M. Congreve: Ornitholoyical and [Ibis,

Acrocephalus palustris. 1\Iarsli.\VarlJ1er.

Common iu botli districts. The first pair was noted on
20 May. In all, nine ncsts were found at (liiïerent times.
The inost eommon situations in the river-menti] district
were in reed-filled (litches and spinneys. Four ncsts were
suspended on an ancrage two feet from tlic gronnd in
dead rceds np which bindwccd was growing, and in onc
case privct as well. Another ncst was in willow-herb.
Several pairs nestcd on the high gronnd wel] above the
valley, and nowhcre near water, in a very wclI-grmvn patch
of rye bordcring the writcfis camp. One nest was located
in this patch by standing on a box and tlius getting the
necessary height to look down on the rye, which was quite
two feet six inchcs high. The old birds wonld periodically
pop out, carrying long pieccs of dcad stalk. Thcy wonld
dodgc along ncai‘ the top of the ryc and then dive in neai‘
the nest, “which hy carcful marking was evetxtnally found.
It was suspended in a mnstard plant abont one foot from
the ground. This nest was most clnmsily made of (ïead
rye-grass rednced to the consistcncy of ordinary straw.
The nest was subscquently beaten down to the ground by
a trelnendons haiLstorm, but a pamnt-bird nevertheless
valiantly continncd t0 sit on three eggs (possibly a fourth
was destroyed) although the nest was actually on thé

In the Peronne district a colony of perhaps tcn pairs was
found breeding in dense high nettlcs groning in a Inarshy
hollow in which willows and aldcrs also gren‘. The nests
fonnd were suspended on three nettle stalks at from
eighteen inches to two feet from the ground.

The dates on which cggs were fonnd were as follows :—-

June 9. (5) fresh.
11. (5) considerztbly incubated.
16. (5) incubation slight.
16. (4) ditto.
20. (3) ditto.
21. (4) considcrably incubated.

1918.] Oo/ogical Notes ‘front tlze River Somme valley. 357


Jnne 23. (5) very much incubated.
24.  incubation slight.
26. (4) ditto.

Witli regard t0 their song, I noticed that (chose tliat lived
in tlxc rye-grass mimickctl Partridge and Quail, which were
comnion i11 tlie iinmedizite neighbourhood. Tliis n'as, of
course, in addition t0 many other successful eflbrts at

Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Great Reed-Warbler.

First noted 011 14 May i11 a reed-bed near St. Valéry.
A nest containing five fresh eggs found on 11 Jnne. Tliis
is a very common species in theTeed-bcds at Peronne.

Acrocephalus schœnobænus. Scdge-VVarbler.
First noted on 29 April. Not a very common breeding
species, and only one nest met witll.

Hypolais icterina. Icterine Warbler.

Althouglx most carefully sought for, tliis species was not
identified on tlie Somme, but is common in river valleys
north of rkbbcville.

" Phylloscopus trochilus. Willow-“Œærbler.
First heard on 14 April. A fairly common breeding

Phylloscopus collybita. Chiffchaff.
First lieard on 8 April. A fairly common breedixig

Turdus viscivorus. BIistleïPlnrush.
Not common. A pair liere and there nesting in village

Turdus musicus. Continental Song-Thrush.

Not common, and extremely shy and retiring. They
appeai‘ t0 breed much later than those at home. Nests with
five and four eggs respectively were found in the Forêt de

358 Major YV. M. Congreve: Ornithologiczzl and [Ibis,

Crécy on 8 May and 20 hlay. In each case the nest wns
about seven feet from the gronnd against the trnnk of
a tree. The eggs were fresh. A nest containing five fresh
eggs was fonnd on 21 Ha)’ in a liawthori] hedgc near
St. Valéry.

Turdus iliacus. Redwing.
Last seen on 3 May.

Turdus pilaris. Fieldfare.
Last seen on 29 April.

Turdus mernla. Blackbird.
Common, but not nearly s0 much s0 as at homo.

Turdus torquatus. Ring-Onzel.
Two observed on migration on 29 April.

Phœnictirus phœnicurus. Rcdstart.
First noted on 8 AM1. A common breedinv s ecies, and
a pan‘ in nearly every orchard.

Erithacus rnbecula. Continental Robin.

Fairly common. Tire first nest was fonnd on «L Way
and contained tlirec young and three unfertile eggs.
Snbsequently nests with six, six, and seven fresii eggs were
fonnd on 10 May and l2 May. A]! thesc ncsts were in
lane-side banks in Saigneville. A friand of the writefs
found two otliei‘ ncsts with six and seven eggs respectively
near St. Valéry lnte in BIay. Sevcn is npparentl)' n not
nncommon clntch and appenrs t0 be larger than is usual
with the British Robin.

Luscinia. megarhyncha. Nightingalc.
First heard on 6 May. Cominon in suitable woods and

Saxicola rubicola. Stonechat.
A pair here and there, but not coininon. A nest with

five considerably incuhated eggs fonnd on 8 May in a. tuft
of grass by the roadside at Nenville near St. Valéry.

1918.] Oological Notes from, t/ze River Suzanne va/legp 359

Saxicola rubetra. îVhinchat.

First noted 011 9 May. A pair here and tliere, and com-
monest on the low-lying cultivated ground near the river-
mouth, wliere they probably ncsted in tlic lucerne.

Œnanthe œnanthe. Wheatear.
Common near the sea, where they were probably brccding‘
in tlie sliingle-banks.

Accentor modularis. He(lge—Spar1‘o\V.
Not imcoinmou round the villages.

Troglodytes troglodgites. Wïren.
A common ilesting species.

Muscicapa grisola. Spotted Flycatchcr.
First noted on 4 May. A connnon ncsting spccies.

Hirundo rustica. Swallow.

lonnnon. The sites selected for nesting in tlxc Peronne
district were often quite remarkable owing t0 tlie absence
0E buildings. The birds often used tlie circulur Nisseu
lmts put up for the troops, and were extraordiuarily tame
and confiding. A wooden porch put up outside the ruined
single room occupied by the writer at Hoisel was used dircctly
it was put up. Auother pair made valiant efforts to build
tlieir nest under tlie hood of une of tlie Battory lorries.
The Iorry went out regularly, but tllC old birds carried ou
building operations on its return and only gave up aftei‘
two 01‘ tliree (lays.

Again, thcre was the curious case of a pair tlxat xnzniziged
to stick thcir nest against a vertical wall of a wintlowless
rooui userl by tlie ofiîcers of a Brigade ILQ. as a mess.
The nest liad no sort of underneath support.

Delichon urbica. Martin. }

Riparia riparia. Sand-Bïartin.
Both tliese species were moderately connnon, and found
nesting in suitable situations.
sen. X.-VOL. v1. 2 1)

360 Major W. M. Congreve: Ornithological and [Ibia,

Dryobates major. Spotted ‘Voodpecläer.

Fairly common. The only breeding-hole which the
writer tbought was a certainty was appropriated by a pair
of large tree-mice, or perhaps rats. The species was quite
unknown to the writer.

Picus viridis. Green Woodpecker.
Common. Their breeding-holes were nsually in most

inaccessible positions well up the bare trunks of large

Iynx torquilla. Wïryneck.

Not observed till late in Jnly, and that was in northern

Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo.

Fairly common. A pinkish type of egg found in a Reed-
Warblefs nest near Saigneville on 9 Jnne (fresh). The
Cnckoo had completely broken and practically destroyed
one of the Reed-Warblefls eggs, and, of the remaining tlxree,
one was badly holed.

The egg-sncking propensities of a certain Cuckoo are

remarked on undcr the lxeading of the Blneeheaded Yellow

Micropus apus. Swift.

Alcedo ispida. Kingfisber.
Occasîonally seen.

Flammes. fiammea. Barn-Owl.
Comxnon, and constantly flnshed from old willoævs.

Carine noctua. Little Owl.

Very common. Nests with five and thrce fresh eggs
respectively found near St. Valéry on 19 May. In one case
an old bird sat so closely that it allowed the writer t0
place l1is hand nnderneath il: without making the least

attempt to move away or retalizzte. The nests found were
in old applc-trces.

:9184 Oological Abtesfivnz the River Somnze valley. 361

Circus pygargus. Montagu’s Harrier.

Not observed until 8 June, wheu several were seen
quartering in the extensive fields of corn in the neighbonr-
hood of the Forêt de Crécy. One was seen towards the end
of June in the Peronne district.

Buteo buteo. Buzzard.

Often noticed in the Forêt de Crécy. Sevcral could at any
time be seen on the wing at once, and they doubtless breed
there, but 110 nest was found.

Accipiter nisus. Sparroxv-Haxvk.
Not unconnnon.

Falco tinnunculus. Kestrel.
Very common, and nesting in old Crows’ ncsts.

Anas boschas. Wild Duck.
Common and breeding in the swamps.

Mareca penelope. W igeon.
A pair seen on a. pool near the mouth 0E the river on
9 Bîay, but they were not seen aftcr that date.

Spatula. clypeata. Shoveler.
Three seen on a pool near the mouth of the river on
9 May, but not seen after that date. '

Nyroca ferina. Pochard.
One seen on a, pool near the mouth of the river on 9 May,
but not seen after Lhat date.

Ardea cinerea. Heron.
Occasionally seen near the flver-lnouth.

Ciconia. ciconia. ‘Vhite Stork.

Five 01‘ six first seen on 7 June on the grassy flats near
the river-motlth. SubsequentLy, a friend informs the
writer, they became much more common, and 11e saw
them constantly round St. Valéry.

Gallinago gallinago. Snipe.
Au odd 011e seen 110w and again, but thcre was no

211 2

362 Ornithological Notes from River Somme valley. [Ibis,

Limosa sp.? Godwit.
A flock of about twenty near the mouth of the river in
summer plumage and last seen on 9 May.

Vanellus vanellus. Lapwing.

Large flocks in the early spring, but none remained to

Podiceps fiuviatilis. Little Grebe.
Met with near Pcronne, and a nest containing four fresh
eggs was found in the river swamp on 15 June.

Gaÿllinula chloropus. Moorhen.
Not very common. Breeds.

Fulica atra. Coot.

Common in the early spring, but did not appear t0 remain
for breeding pnrposcs.

Columba palumbus. Ring-Dove.
A fairly common breeding species.

Streptopelia turtur. Turtle-Dovc.
A common breeding species. First noted on 6 May.

Perdix perdix. Partridge.
Very common. '

Coturnix coturnix. Quai].

Extremely common in both the river-mouth and Peronne
districts, especially the latter.

Round Pcronnc the thousands of acres of nncut grass

must have meant a most successful undisturbed breeding-

In conclusion, the writer wishes to state that 11e fully
realizes how incomplete this list is. Species such as Hobby,
Bittern, the Rails, Goshawk, and Honey-Buzzard were care-
fully watched for with no success, and the Gulls and Waders
which were common near the sea during the early spring

were not sought for and identified owing t0 lack of tinie and