FROM the middle of March to August 1917 I Was stationed
at six or seven different places in the Department of Pas-de-
Calais, and all my spare time (generally an houx‘ or two in
the evenings) was given over to bird observation round
our various camps.

These notes refer only to this Department, and mainly
to the eastern and central portions of it; as I was vory
rarely near the coast, few sea birds are incîuded.

It seems t0 b6 the general impression in England that
bird life is scarce in fiance. This is far from the truth.
In suitabîe places in this area, I found 1nore bird lite than
in similar localities in England.

The folîowing were found generally distributed as breediqzg
spæies, the dates, where entered, beîng those on which
the first individual migrants arrived; Where no dates are
entered against migrants, the bird had probably arrived
previously; in some instances, localities, Where the species
was seen, are 3.130 mserted :—

Carrion-Crow, Rook, Magpie, Jay, Golden Oriolo (May 12th, Cour-
celles Wood), Starlùäg, Greenfinïch, Goldfinuch (not ver-y conxmon),
House-Sparrow, Troo-Sparrow (very numerous east and south},
Chaffinch, Linnet, Yellowhammer, Cirl Bunting (‘common all avez‘),
Sky-Lark, Crested Lark (numerous), Tree-Pipit (May 13th, Bretencotzrt),
White Wagtail, Tree-Creeper (rather local), Great Tit, Bluo Tit, Max-sh-
Tit, Spotted Flycatelaer {May 8th, Boiry St. Ricïhtrude), Great Reed-
Warbler (near Hesdin), ReeCLWarbIer (May 19th, St. P01), Marslæ
Warbler (May 19th, St. P01), Chiffehaff (May 12th, Cour-celles Wood),
Icterine Vvarbler (May 11th, Adinfer), Blackcap (May 4th, Boiry St.
Richtrude), GardemWaI-bler (May 12th, Ooureelles Wood), Gommer;
Whitethmat (May 4th, Boiry St. Martin), MistltæThx-ush, Blackbird,
Whinchat (May 1st, Boiry St. Martin, cock), Redstart (May 13th,
Bretencourt, cock), Niglmtingale (May 6th, Agny, May 7th, Adinfer),
Robin, Hedge-Sparrow, Wren, Swallow (April 13th, Boiry Beequerelle),
Martin (May 1st, Boiry St. Riehtrude), Sand-Martin (May 13th, Boiry
St. Richtrude), Swift (hïay 6th), Green Woodpecker, Cuckoo (May 11th,
Adinfer Wood), Barn-Owl, Tawny Owl, Little Owl (near Hesdin, St.
P01, and Watou), Sparrow-Hawk, Kestrel, Wood-Pigeon (none seen
till mid-April, when they gradually inereased and beeame eommon),
Turtle-Dove (May 4th), Moorïfien, Pheasaxxt, Partridge (Common, not
Redalegged), Quail (May 231-61, near St. P01).

The majority of the above nested within four or five miles
of our front line trenchesm-Vîïhinchats and Common White-

272 BRITISH BIRDS. [von x11.

throats rejoiced in the wire entanglements and the rough
grass whjch grew long amongst» them.

The follovving species I cannot include under the above
heading “ generally distributed ” :—-

HooDED CROW (Germes comix).——Plenty in the winter;
none seen after mid-April.

JACKDAW (Oolœus monedulczy-Â only noted them at
one place (Steenvoorde).

HAWFINCH (Ooccothraustes coccothrausteflr-«A few pairs in
the big beech and hornbeam woods near St. Pol and HesdinH
not at all common.

ÔORN-BÏINTING (Enzberiza calandmywRather local, very
common in the east and in places in the centre, but entirely
absent in siinilar situations elsewhere» numerous near Amas
in April, in large fiocks of 100 or more. Local near St. P01,
Hesdin, and Watou.

MEADoW-PIPIT (Anthus pratensisyäA fair number seen
on migration eaæly in April; but only one pair suspected
of having a nest.

BLUE-IIEADED WAGTAIL (M. flcwa flcwaymFound nesting
commonly, in the northweast of the dcpartment only (Watou

YELLOW WAGTAIL (M. f. rayi).—=(April 27th, Boiry St.
Richtrude) A faîr number seen on migrationmnot proved to
have nested.

GREY WAGTAIL (M. cinereay-Onc pair only, nesting
near St. Pol (Hernicoïirt).

PIED WAGTATL (Il/Ioiacüla a. Zugubrisy-«Fairly common
on migration in early spring: it Was not ascertained for
certain that it nested, but was suspected on two occasions
of doing se.

NUTHATCH (Sitta europœay-«Not common*the few that
were met with were in the large forest of Hesdin.

LONG-TAILED TIT (Ægithalos c. europæusywünly one lot
noticed, a newly fiedged brood in the Forest of Hesdin:
the continental form.

Wooncmr SHRIKE (Lamas senatoæùæ-(hïay 9th, Ayettc)
One only seen, a passing bird.

RED-BAGKED SHRXKE (L. collurioywflflay 19th, near
St. Pol) Not Very common; only about six pairs seen;
all probably nesting.

WILLoW-WREN (Pkylloscopus trochilns).——(l\/lay 13th, Haute-
ville) Not nearly so nuinerous as in England, not more than
a dozen pairs met with altogether.

GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER (Locustella nævia).—»(May 23rd,


St. P01) In one locality fiVe pairs were found within a mile
of each other ; a commoner bird than in Englandwa few live
in the withy beds, in swampy ground-«the majority in the
big woods on the high ground, where the underwood has
been cut a ycar.

MELomoUs WARBLER (Hg/primés poäyglottay-«Two pairs
seen and one nest found, near St. P01, first seen May

LESSER WHITETHROAT (Sylvia currucay-«A rare bird;
Why, it is difficult t0 say: everything seemed stiitable for
them : the first arrival noted was on May 30th, at Gauchin
Verloignt, near St. P01; this individuaî passed on: near
this place also were found nesting later on, possibly tvvo
pairs ; at Aubin St. Vaast, near Hesdin on July 31st, young
ones just out of the nest, were being fed by the mother;
these wcre the only individuals seen; only once Was the
familiar and monotonous “ zip-Zip-zip ” note heard, and
this is not casily overlooked.

SONGTHRUSH (Turdus pkiZomelusyNNowhere co1nmon———
less than a dozen pairs were observed during the whole
periodwthese Were in the big Woods, not in the gardons as
in England. More frequent in the centre, near St. P01, and
west, near Hesdin, than in the imrth and east. I attribute
their scarcity t0 the very severe late spring, Which took heavy
toll of the Redwings and Fieldfares also.

WHEATEAR (Œnanthe œnanthzflæ-{May 3rd, Adinfer) Only
about ten seenwtwo pairs ncsting in old German bigwgun
emplacements-the rest passing. N0 rough warrens 01‘
rabbit holes for themî

STONECHAT (Saxicola t. rubicolæ ?).«——Three only seen-fi
al} passing, the first two in Match, our own familiar birdäthe
third seen on May 26th at Gauchin Verloignt, near St. P01,
had sooty black upper-parts and tail, exceptionally black;
Very conspicuous white collar all round the neck, meeting
at the back of the neck-w-large pure white wing«spots—deep
brilliant red breastwvpure white rump like a VVheatear.
Taking the date into consideration and the brilliancy and
markings of this bird, I think this is probably a diiïerent
race of Stonechat than usually occurs in Great Britain.

BLACK REDSTART (Pkænicæcrus o. gibmltœriensisy-Only
one pair seen on July 11th, which was feeding young on
the top of the highest hill in the Department, about 175
metres (Mont des Cats).

NIGHTJAR (Otzprimuigus europæuslm-Only twice noted;
at Houtkerque.

274 BRITISH BIRDS. {van X11.

WRYNECK (Jynw torquillaymSeen and heard on six occa-
sions, first arriva} May 2lst, St. P01.

GBEAT SPOTTED WOODPEGKER (Dryobates majoæùs-Not so
numerous as the Green Woodpecker : seen about six times;
at Wail, at St. P01.

LEssIm SPOTTED WOODPEOKER (D. minork-Two records
only : both in the St. P01 district.

PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregränuenæ-Four records,
three in March and April near Wail, one in June near Watou.

HOBBY (Falco subbuteoyw-First seen April 25th; a wood at
Wailly, near Arras, was taken possession of by a pair as their
summer residence ; on severaî occasions here, these Hobbies
gave me a good display of flying, stooping at and buifeting a
pair of Kestrels, half in earnest, half in playæthe Kestrels
eventually had to clear out.

MERLIN (Falco c. æsalon).——Two seen in March at Wail.

COMMON BUZZARD (Buteo buieo).———TWo broods seen, able
to fiy, and the old birds, in the forest of Hesdin.

MÀRSH«HARRIER (Girons æruginosusyw-Only one seen, on
July 28th, an old bird at Contes, near Aubin St. Vaast,

MONTAGIŸS HARRIER (Girons pygargus).——0ne only, a
female, stayed, while on migration, for three days in the
same large stubble field about three miles behind the front
trenches near Boileaux-au—Mont—— she was always to be
found standing on the ground at exactly the same spot.

GOSILAWK (Accipiter gentilisy-«Two seen in Hesdin Forest.

KITE (Mélmcs milmcsy-«One bird, immature, seen: being
called by its parents : it could just fly from tree to tree and
keep sixty yards ahead of me. A clear view of the old birds
was never obtained, even aÎter prolonged watching: this
was in a great wood of splendid oak and beech.

HERON (Ardea cinerea).—A fair number seen at Wail,
Watou, and I-Iesdin. One was observed trying to cross
“ no man’s land ” when much firing was going on.
watched him with a telescopenhe made the attempt six
times during a morning but I never saw him get across.

MALLARD (Amas platyrhynchay-l only saw three small

SHOVELER (Spatula clypeatzzor-«One only noted.

LAND-RAIL (Oreæ crexfi-(May 20th) Not common: seen
or heard about a dozen times (St. P01 and Hesdin).

SToNE-CURLEXV (Burhmus œdicnemus).——Several heard fiy-
ing very high on March 28th at midday.

GOLDEN PLOVER (Ûharadrius apricarius).———Two small


flocks seen April 12th, Henin, and May 4th at Boiry St.
Richtrude. Several arrived during the week ending August
6th near Hesdin.

COMMON SANDPIPER (Tringa hypoleucay-{May 17th) Not
many; a few seen, probably nesting, in June, on the river
banks near St. Pol : numbers slightly increased about July
28th on the river Canche.

REDSHANK (T. calidris).—A great fiock heard going over
at 11 p.m. on August 13th : there must have been hundreds
by their clamour.

CURLEW (Numenius arquataymSeventeen seen fiying
south on June 25th (Watou). Several heard going over at
midnight July 21st and 22nd (Hesdin)—several passed
eastward during the Week ending August 6th (Hesdin).

WOODCOCK (Scolopax rusticola).—0ne only seen, fiighting
in the evening in Hesdin Forest, in August.

BLACK-HEADED GULL (Larus ridibundusy-One seen on the

Of the above, many, such as the Nuthatch, Pied Wagtail,
Yellow Wagtail (possibly), Com-Bunting, Hawfinch, Meadow-
Pipit, Red-backed Shrike, Nightjar, Stone-Curlew, Land-Rail,
Common Sandpiper, Mallard, Hobby, Goshawk, Lesser and
Greater Spotted Woodpecker and Wryneck could have
probably been found actually nesting, had one had the time
to watch.

The above notes are from my own observations only, and
were written up in August 1917.

Total number of species recorded for the.months March to
August 1917 is 106.